By Lorenza Saitta, Jean-Daniel Zucker
▓ Book's spouse Website
▓ Abstraction is a basic mechanism underlying either human and synthetic notion, illustration of information, reasoning and studying. This mechanism performs a very important position in lots of disciplines, significantly computing device Programming, usual and synthetic imaginative and prescient, complicated platforms, synthetic Intelligence and desktop studying, artwork, and Cognitive Sciences. This booklet first offers the reader with an summary of the notions of abstraction proposed in a variety of disciplines by way of evaluating either commonalities and ameliorations. After discussing the characterizing houses of abstraction, a proper version, the KRA version, is gifted to trap them. This version makes the concept of abstraction simply acceptable by way of the creation of a collection of abstraction operators and abstraction styles, reusable throughout varied domain names and purposes. it's the impression of abstraction in man made Intelligence, complicated platforms and desktop studying which creates the middle of the e-book. A common framework, in accordance with the KRA version, is gifted, and its pragmatic energy is illustrated with 3 case stories: Model-based analysis, Cartographic Generalization, and studying Hierarchical Hidden Markov Models.
∙ Collects, describes and compares quite a few ways to abstraction proposed within the literature of assorted fields
∙ Discusses why abstraction performs a key function in AI artifacts, utilizing concrete examples, similar to cartographic generalization and human/robot interaction
∙ offers a conceptualization framework to layout potent systems
▒ Book's Preface
When we begun penning this e-book we have been conscious of the complexity of the task,
but we didn't think that it should take us virtually 3 years to accomplish it.
Furthermore, through the research and comparability of the literature from different
fields, it basically emerged that vital effects were accomplished, yet that much
more very important ones are nonetheless out of succeed in. Then, the spirit of the ebook replaced, by
itself, from the meant evaluation of the prior to a stimulus for the long run. We
would be at liberty if the reader, rather than being content material with the information we propose,
would take them as a motivation and place to begin to head past them.
We current a wide collection of works on abstraction in different disciplines;
nonetheless many proper contributions to the sector were unavoidably left out,
owing to the sheer quantity of pages they might fill. We express regret for the missing
In this e-book we current a version of abstraction, the KRA version, yet this can be not
the center of the publication. It has a constrained scope and serves major reasons: on the
one hand it indicates that a number of prior proposals of abstraction theories have a
common root and will be dealt with within a unified framework, and, at the different, it
offers a computational setting for appearing abstraction by way of making use of a collection of
available, domain-independent operators (programs). in reality, there's nonetheless a gap
between normal abstraction theories, in general based logical formulations of representation
changes, and urban techniques that seriously depend on particular domain
characteristics. The KRA version is intended to be whatever in among: the
domain-independence of the abstraction operators achieves either generality (it can
cover a huge spectrum of purposes and alertness domains), and synergy (by
instantiating in numerous contexts a few code written only one time).
Independently of the version, we think that the elemental principles on which it relies
are extra vital than the version itself. those rules are definitely controversial; some
reader could imagine that our view of abstraction is precisely what he/she has always
looked for, while another may imagine that abstraction is completely something
else. either reactions are welcome: what issues is to set off curiosity within the subject
and stimulate extra research.
The publication isn't meant to be a textbook: it's particular to scientists operating on
or utilizing abstraction options, with out obstacle of fields. desktop scientists,
Artificial Intelligence researchers, artists, cognitive scientists, mathematicians, and curious minds can learn the e-book. a few elements are extra formalized, they usually may
look complicated first and foremost sight. even if, we think that the best a part of the
content is graspable via intuition.
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Extra info for Abstraction in Artificial Intelligence and Complex Systems
A cued representation “stands for something that is present in the current external situation of the representing organism”. On the contrary, a detached representation may stand for objects or events that are neither present in the current situation nor triggered by some recent situation. Strictly connected with these representations are the notions of symbol, which refers to a detached representation, and signal, which refers to a cued one. Languages use mostly symbols. Animals may show even complex patterns of communication, but these are patterns of signals, not symbols.
Ferrari argues that generalization, decontextualization and reification are all basic components of abstraction in Mathematics, but that abstraction cannot be identified with any single one of them. For instance, generalization, defined as an extensional inclusion relation, cannot exhaust the abstraction process, which also includes recognition of common properties, adoption of a compact axiom set, and definition of a notation systems to deal with newly defined concepts. 3 Mathematics 23 of decontextualization, intended as privileging syntactic rules and disregarding meaning and interpretation related to some given context.
In his paper Kramer explores two aspects of abstraction: the ability to remove details for simplification, and the formulation of general concepts by abstracting common properties from specific examples. While mentioning the utility of abstraction in other domains, such as art or map drawing, he cautions the user that abstraction is a strongly purpose-oriented process, which can be misleading if used for other goals than those for which it was created. ” Finally, Ghezzi et al.  identify abstraction as a fundamental principle to master complexity in Software Engineering.