By C N Hill
"A Vertical Empire" describes the paintings in rocketry and house learn conducted within the united kingdom within the Fifties and Sixties. At one time, the programme used to be as subtle as these within the US and Russia. The initiatives have been cancelled one after the other as Britain's makes an attempt to maintain militarily with the 2 superpowers weakened, as a result of Treasury strain and the idea that there has been no financial destiny in house know-how. a lot of the cloth during this ebook hasn't ever been on hand earlier than, due in part to the 30-Year Rule relating govt records, and in part to the delicate army nature of the paintings. The tasks lined comprise rocket-propelled airplane, huge army missiles corresponding to the medium variety ballistic missile "Blue Streak", the try rocket "Black Knight" and the re-entry experiments it carried, and the satellite tv for pc launcher "Black Arrow". furthermore, proposed initiatives which could were constructed from those cars are coated extensive. there's additionally significant political research of why those tasks have been finally discontinued.
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Additional resources for A Vertical Empire: The History of the UK Rocket and Space Programme, 1950-1971
Liquid hydrogen chamber This chamber is the one seen being fired on the previous page. E. Westcott in the 50s by Jeffs, Ricketson and others. A long Technical Note was published on the experiments they had been doing using small combustion chambers of about 2kN or 450 lb thrust, at pressures of around 60N/cm2 or 90psi, increasing to lOON/cm2 (150psi). These were just experiments, however: no practical designs for motors emerged at that stage. Injector head This is from the motor above: the left hand view shows the holes through which the gases were injected into the chamber.
Early German and British work used compounds of manganese in one form or another to decompose the peroxide, often injected with the fuel, leading to a very messy exhaust. P. was passed, and as it did so, decomposed to steam and oxygen at a temperature of around 500°C. Into these hot gases a fuel could be injected, and at that temperature they burned spontaneously, meaning there was no further ignition needed. This was very convenient, particularly in the rocket aircraft and the Blue Steel missile.
Each had its advantages and drawbacks. For military purposes, solid fuel rockets 28 A Vertical Empire are much to be preferred, as there is not the problem of sealing noxious liquids in their tanks. I. (Specific Impulse) was low, and the rocket cases, designed to contain high pressures, tended to be very heavy. They were also difficult to steer since the nozzles are fixed. Liquid fuel motors can be swung round, or gimballed. 's earliest missile projects, the Navy's Seaslug, Red Fuming Nitric Acid and kerosene were chosen.